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01-Nov-2017 21:43

Now comes the trivial yet tricky part : How to activate the image.A quick look at the boot vars show which image will be used.In its advisory, the company says "Cisco has observed a limited number of cases where attackers, after gaining administrative or physical access to a Cisco IOS device, replaced the Cisco IOS ROMMON (IOS bootstrap) with a malicious ROMMON image".ROMMON is the IOS bootstrap, so replacing it means the attacker can "manipulate device behaviour", and if the owner doesn't know there's a malicious image, it will persist beyond a reboot.Admins – with appropriate credentials, naturally – need to be able to drop new ROM images on their kit as a matter of course."The ability to install an upgraded ROMMON image on IOS devices is a standard, documented feature that administrators use to manage their networks", Cisco says.In some series of routers, the RAM information is displayed by 2 parameters (in this case 60416K/5120K).

NVRAM contents are not lost when the router is powered down or reloaded.Just got in a new Cisco ISR 4431 and needed to upgrade IOS-XE out of the box.Cisco has been nice enough to include a 1Gb USB flash drive with their new ISRs, making the software upgrade process a cinch.Run Also, from the information shown above, we can learn some information about router’s model, RAM, Flash, NVRAM memories as shown below: Note: The “show version” command also gives us this information.All the above information is straight-forwarding except the information of RAM.

NVRAM contents are not lost when the router is powered down or reloaded.Just got in a new Cisco ISR 4431 and needed to upgrade IOS-XE out of the box.Cisco has been nice enough to include a 1Gb USB flash drive with their new ISRs, making the software upgrade process a cinch.Run Also, from the information shown above, we can learn some information about router’s model, RAM, Flash, NVRAM memories as shown below: Note: The “show version” command also gives us this information.All the above information is straight-forwarding except the information of RAM.Someone needed the skills to reverse-engineer ROMMON, and the resources to suborn sysadmins into installing the malicious image into their networks.